In the Mule Hole watershed, the vegetation consists of dry deciduous forest where 4 different facies of vegetation have been identified (Figure 7):

  • ATT facies, mainly dominated by three species, namely Anogeissus latifolia, Terminalia alata and Tectona grandis. This facies is dominant, covering about 70% of the watershed, and has developed on both, thick red soils and thin black soils with a vertic horizon usually less than 1 m thick.
  • Shorea facies, characterized by the presence of Shorea roburghii and Lagerstroemia microcarpa, covering about 15% of the watershed occurs on very shallow red soil overlying a sandy gneiss saprolite found very close to the topsoil (0.2–0.4 m below the topographic surface).
  • Swamp facies, consisting of grass-covered glades with scattered trees (Ceristoides turgida). This facies is mainly located in the low parts of the watershed with some spots along the crest line. Field observations indicated that it grows exclusively on thick black soils in the lower part of the watershed as well as on the crest, covering about 5% of the area.
  • Discontinuous ‘riverine facies’ along the talwegs characterized by the presence of Syzygium cumini, Mangifera indica, Ficus recemosa and Derris indica. This facies has not clearly developed and/or occupies very small area.
Figure 7. Vegetation map of the Mule Hole watershed
Figure 7. Vegetation map of the Mule Hole watershed